Final study guide and FAQs
When is the exam?
December 11, Monday, 11:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
What is the format of the final exam?
The final will be a combination of short objective questions (multiple
choice, fill-in-the-blank, etc.), data analysis problems (one each for
phonology, morphology, and syntax), and one essay question. We will choose
the essay question from the set of possible questions given below.
What materials should I study to prepare for the final exam?
study guide (this)
readings, handouts, homework assignments, in-class writing assignments,
and your own notes from lectures
(There will be questions which are directly out of the readings which may
not have been discussed in class.)
Possible essay questions:
1. We have discussed various issues and factors regarding multilingualism.
Taking these issues and factors into consideration, discuss, don't list,
two pros and two cons for supporting multilingualism in the United States.
Remember you need to take both sides for this question.
2. In lectures and readings you learned about 10 linguistic features in
Chinese., Korean., and Japanese. Pick ONE of these languages.
A. Give 2 linguistic features that you would expect to cause problems when
a speaker of that language learns Eng. Describe the features and why there
would be a problem.
B. Give a different 2 linguistic features that you would expect to cause
problems when a speaker of Eng. learns that language. Describe the
features and why there would be a problem.
3. Part 1: Imagine that you are an American student studying in an East
Asian country (pick your favorite from China, Korea, and Japan). Write a
brief letter to a friend who is a native of that country and tell your
friend how things have been going. Be sure to include at least one good
aspect of your life there and one problem that you are having.
Part 2: Now imagine that you are the Asian (Chinese/Japanese/Korean)
friend who receives this letter, write a reply letter commenting on your
American friend's letter, both the positives and the negatives. Be sure to
explain why you think any expressed problems might be occurring and what
your American friend might do to solve them.
Main points for each unit
Unit 8 differences within cultures
dialect groups in China; the top two (in terms of number of speakers)
number of minority groups in China; major ones
reasons for placing much importance on minorities by the Chinese
preferential treatment minorities in China receive
What counts as a minority group in China
differences between North and South minorities in China with respect to
language and culture
basic information about marginalized groups in Japan (Ainu, Okinawans,
Koreans, and burakumin)
origin/history, residence, population, language, how they are treated.
basic information about Koreans in China
factors contributing to different levels of ethnicity between Koreans in
China and Koreans in Japan
immigrant vs. colonized minorities
influence from Korea
Unit 9 sounds in East Asian languages
phoneme vs. allophones
basic vs. derived allophones
steps to follow to do phonology problems (study homework and handouts)
Unit 10 words in East Asian languages
native words, Sino-Japanese or Sino-Korean words, loanwords (Japanese and
four ways in which words are adapted when they are borrowed from English
to Japanese (pronunciation, meaning specialization/change, Japanese
Germanic and Latinate words in English
free morpheme (stem/base) vs. bound morpheme (affix)
affix (prefix, suffix)
word formation processes (affixation, compounding, reduplication,
character = morpheme = syllable (Chinese)
word formation in Chinese
know how to do morphology problems (study handouts)
Unit 11 putting words together
most frequent word orders in world languages
word order flexibility
particles (Japanese and Korean)
classifiers (measure words)
topic - comment
definite and indefinite articles
adjectives vs. verbs
gender and animacy distinction in pronouns
how these features show up in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and English
know how to do syntax problems (study homework)
Unit 12 culture and discourse
English rhetorical structures vs. Japanese rhetorical structures
how "English" speakers feel about Japanese rhetorical style
how Japanese speakers feel about English rhetorical style
primary source of stereotypical perception of Asians by Westerners and
Asian and Western call-answer patterns; function of small talk in Asian
behavior, topic introduction, facework in Asian outside relationships
reasons for why Westerners visiting Asia are often frustrated
Speaking first, greeting and introducing topics in a teacher-student
reasons for different behavior between outside and inside relationships