Languages & Cultures of East Asia
Trad 101, Sections
18-19-20-21 Fall 2000
Lecture Outline, 9/20/00 - Hierarchy
Internet projects due Friday
Japanese and Korean systems to express politeness (complicated!)
Politeness in different languages and what it tells us
Ruler - subject
Father - son
Husband - wife
Elder brother - younger brother
Friend - friend
Japanese/Korean have grammatical systems to express politeness
Age, sex, status, in/outgroupness
Two separate dimensions:
Speaker - addressee
Speaker - referent
|'(I) helped (him)'
'(I) helped (him)'
|'(She) helped (him)'
'(She) helped (him)'
'(I) helped (him)'
Which forms would be used in the following situations in
1) a salesclerk talking to a
2) you talking to your friend about
what your teacher did
3) you talking to a teacher about
what another teacher did
4) a cutomer talking to a
formal or informal
5) you talking to your boss
6) you talking to your neighbor
about what you did to a teacher
formal or informal/humble
7) you talking to a customer about
what your boss did
customer - outgroup
you and your boss - ingroup
Three ingroup levels (plain, intimate, familiar)
Three outgroup levels (polite, authoritative, deferential)
respect (no humble form)
Of course, the use of these forms is a lot more complicated
In/outgroupness and formality can change
Inside vs. ouside of
Now sex and age may not
be as important as before (Martin)
What about when age, status, and sex are
Personality, perception, and belief play roles
So are Japanese/Korean people polite?
Depends on the situation and the person
Karaoke bars (drinking with colleagues)
No need to say thanks within family
All languages have ways to be polite
Would you please....
Do you mind if...
Ma'am, Sir, Dr. Liu,
Ono gave the lecture.
Professor Ono gave the
But only some languages (e.g., Japanese/Korean) have
Languages have different obligatory categories
Systems to express
Japanese/Korean can make
distinctions, but it's not obligatory
Confucianism is from China, but Chinese doesn't have
a built-in system to express politeness
Language and culture are related,
but the relationship is not one to one